thoughts?? A condition of decreased bone mineral density is Osteoporosis. Osteoporosis causes the bones to become porous and increases the risk of fracture or break. Storage of minerals is what gives the bone structural integrity. Over time minerals are lost and the bone becomes thinner, weaker and easy to break. It is the most common disease of the bones. Postmenopausal women or women with low estrogen may notice a loss of height or develop a hump in the upper back called dowagers hump. The curve is caused by vertebral compression fractures and it causes a kyphotic posture. Risk factors for osteoporosis are Family history, caucasian, increase in age, female, small stature, fair pale skin, thin build, late menarche, early menopause, obesity, weight below normal, acidosis, nullparity, low calcium in diet, high caffeine intake, smoker, excessive alcohol consumption, liver or kidney disease, and RA. Nurses can help their patients with musculoskeletal diseases by giving a great deal of psychosocial support, support to help deal with the complexities of the condition. Limitations and pain may cause patients to become depressed so appropriate mental health assessments are needed. Patients can have limitations on insurance, finances, transportation, that can affect their over all compliance with medications and treatment. The nurse should gain information through basic question and answer interviews to supplu the patient with the support that is needed. Always be aware of cultural and spiritual considerations. The patient will need help with smoking cessation is they are a smoker, help with diet and exercise plans to keep them healthy. Helping with medications and herbal supplements to help with inflammation. Supplying canes, walkers and assistive devices can help the patient get along better with their daily life.