I need both reply short, those reply are about What kinds of public policies might be designed to give individuals more incentives to remain healthy and reduce demand for costly health care services? Reply1 I think the public policies should be designed to focus on preventative cares than disease treatments. I think Affordable Care Act (ACA) is one of examples of it. ACA expanded Medicaid to uninsured people who are low income. The ACA eliminated the concept of categorical eligibility and replaced it with standard eligibility criteria of 138 percent of the federal poverty level. And ACA utilizes preventive services. Some studies found that use of preventive care, such as diabetes screening, increased. It led to higher rates of preventative services, which resulted in more diagnoses of diabetes and high cholesterol. (National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, 2018) Furthermore, under ACA, payers are required to provide preventive services such as screenings, tests, and health evaluations at no cost when consumers receive care in specific provider networks. Many studies have found that the preventative care can reduce health care spending in the U.S. Chronic diseases that are avoidable through preventive care services account for 75 percent of the nations healthcare spending and lower economic output in the US by $260 billion dollars a year. (Beaton, 2017) Those spending could be reduced by providing the preventative care to all the American without the cost. Therefore, public policies should focus on the preventative care for people to remain health and reduce demand for costly health care services. Reply2 For individuals to enjoy optimal health and avoid costly health services, they must have the benefit of high-quality healthcare that is coordinated with the public health system. Public policies should be designed by increasing funding for wellness and prevention programs, health promotion, public health services, and support of the public health infrastructure (NAS, 2020). In addition to that, it should end agricultural incentives for products harmful to health, such as tobacco, increase its taxes, and reinforce control of the marketing and labeling of this product. Profits for gains from such actions should be used to promote programs to improve the peoples health. Duplication of services, including technology that does not improve patient care and health, should be avoided in order to reduce unnecessary services (NAS, 2020).